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Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease, the main indicator of which is a persistent increase in blood pressure above the permissible limits. Blood pressure is divided into systolic and diastolic.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP), also called "upper", means the pressure in the arteries that occurs when the heart contracts and the release of blood into the arterial part of the vascular system.
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), also referred to as "lower", means the pressure in the arteries at the moment of relaxation of the heart, during which it is filled before the next contraction. Measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
Blood pressure rises when the arteries and / or their smaller branches, the arterioles, narrow. In some people, arterioles often narrow, at first due to spasm, and later their lumen remains constantly narrowed due to thickening of the wall, and then, in order for the blood flow to overcome these narrowings, the work of the heart increases and more blood is thrown into the vascular bed. These people, as a rule, develop hypertension.
About 90% of patients suffer from primary or essential hypertension. In about one in ten hypertensive patients, high blood pressure is caused by damage to an organ. In these cases, they speak of secondary or symptomatic hypertension. Arterial hypertension is a very common disease. However, there are many misconceptions and myths about this disease.
It doesn't concern me. In fact, in our country, about 40% of Russians suffer from arterial hypertension. But only 37% of men and 58% of women know that they have hypertension, and only 22 and 46% of them are engaged in its treatment. Only 5.7% of men and 17.5% of women control blood pressure.
Arterial hypertension is a disease of the elderly. In fact, today the age of patients with arterial hypertension has sharply decreased. It often occurs in people just after the age of 30.
Hypertension can be seen right away - he is always in pain or dizzy. In fact, the symptoms of hypertension at the initial stage are very inexpressive. Often, patients with hypertension are not even aware of their illness, lead an active lifestyle, not paying attention to the fact that sometimes they have dizziness, bouts of lightheadedness, headache, noise in the head. This is attributed to fatigue. And consequently, they do not undergo treatment, they "start" the disease. And this poses a serious threat to the health of young people. After all, the "neglected", far-reaching stage of arterial hypertension leads to heart failure, cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage, and sometimes even to a stroke or death. Therefore, for prevention, doctors advise from the age of 25 to monitor your blood pressure every 6 months for several days. Of course, there are symptoms that indicate the presence of hypertension:
• more frequent headaches - long-term, sometimes accompanied by dizziness or nausea;
• pain in the region of the heart - lasting several minutes or even hours, occurring even at rest, without physical activity;
• shortness of breath, swelling of the legs, visual impairment - fog in the eyes, flashing "flies", bifurcation of objects, short-term loss of vision.
However, these symptoms already indicate that the disease has gone beyond the primary stage of development.
Arterial hypertension is not a fatal disease. Often, due to a persistent increase in blood pressure, the activity of vital organs is disrupted: the brain, heart, blood vessels, kidneys. Arterial hypertension is often complicated by heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage. In Russia, arterial hypertension and its consequences are among the main causes of mortality.
Arterial hypertension is inherited. So if close relatives don't have it, you don't have to worry. Indeed, if among your relatives someone suffers from hypertension, you are definitely at risk. But this does not mean at all that you will definitely get sick with hypertension. However, do not relax, if even among your relatives there are no patients with hypertension. There are factors that contribute to the development of this disease, even in people with excellent heredity.
First, of course, it is alcohol and smoking. So, nicotine provokes a constant spasm of the arteries, which leads to their rigidity, increasing the pressure in the vessels.
Secondly, it is overweight, physical inactivity and unbalanced nutrition. So, animal fats and meat (especially pork and lamb) contain lipids that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
Third, there is salt abuse. No more than 1 teaspoon of salt (no top) can be consumed per day without risk to health. A daily excess of salt in the body significantly increases the risk of developing arterial hypertension.
Fourth, it is, of course, stress. At the moment of stress, our body is activated, all systems, including the cardiovascular system, begin to work in an enhanced mode. Hormones are released into the bloodstream that cause spasm of the arteries (as with smoking), which leads to stiffness of the arteries and the occurrence of a persistent increase in pressure.
Women suffer from hypertension less often than men. Indeed, it has been proven that men suffer from arterial hypertension more often than women. This is explained by the fact that female sex hormones, estrogens, prevent the development of hypertension. However, during menopause, they stop working, and then the statistics on the occurrence of hypertension in women increases sharply, even exceeding the incidence in men.
Each person has their own "normal" pressure. Doctors think differently. And they call the clear boundaries of normal blood pressure: 120-129 to 80-84 mm Hg. In other cases, arterial hypertension is diagnosed.
If a person has several times the pressure was in excess of the norm - he is probably hypertensive. Wrong. The main indicator of arterial hypertension is a persistent increase in blood pressure. Therefore, in order to make such a diagnosis, the doctor must first make sure that the increase is really "persistent". The doctor must record blood pressure readings of 139/89 mm Hg at least three times. Art. and more. At the same time, a slight, even persistent increase in blood pressure does not mean the presence of a disease.
It is better to measure pressure in a hospital. Today, in any pharmacy you can purchase an electronic tonometer, with which you can easily measure your blood pressure at home quite accurately. However, it is worth remembering that doctors do not recommend using finger or wrist tonometers. Pros of home blood pressure monitoring:
• you can take measurements on different days and at a time convenient for you;
• this allows you to save on treatment;
• self-monitoring of blood pressure is disciplined.
In addition, the measurement of blood pressure requires compliance with a number of conditions:
• is held in a quiet, calm and comfortable environment after a 5-minute rest;
• 1-2 hours after eating;
• the use of coffee, cigarettes, strong tea for 1 hour before measuring is excluded. When measuring pressure at home, it is easy to comply with all these conditions.
The treatment of hypertension is entirely up to the doctor. If you do not have a hereditary tendency to arterial hypertension, then there is a chance to cure the disease at an early stage. But the doctor is powerless to do this without your desire to be cured and without your work on yourself. If you are interested in a cure, you will have to follow your doctor's instructions. For example, keep records of blood pressure measurements, monitor well-being, exclude from your life the above risk factors that contribute to the progression of hypertension and the development of complications.
Arterial hypertension is treated only with drugs. In fact, about 50% of patients with mild arterial hypertension are cured without any drugs - only with the help of non-drug treatment, which is aimed at reducing the effect of risk factors. For people with more severe hypertension, non-drug treatment with medication can help reduce the dose of drugs and reduce the risk of drug side effects.